Definition of ‘Tul’ (Patterns): A series of offensive and defensive movements set in a logical sequence against one or more imaginary opponents.
The meanings General Choi Hong-Hi included when he designed the first twelve (12) patterns of I.T.F. (Ch’ang Hon) Taekwon-Do are as follows:
*Note: The pattern diagrams have all been inverted for ease of use while reading. The starting posture of each pattern is facing ‘D’.
CHON-JI tul: Chon-Ji means literally “the Heaven the Earth”. It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.
DAN-GUN tul: Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year of 2333 B.C.
DO-SAN tul: Do-san is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1878-1938). The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement.
WON-HYO tul: Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year of 686 A.D.
YUL-GOK tul: Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea”. The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38o latitude and the diagram represents “scholar”.
JOONG-GUN tul: Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea- Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr. Ahn’s age when he was executed at Lui-Shung prison (1910).
TOI-GYE tul: Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37o latitude, the diagram represents “scholar”.
HWA-RANG tul: Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into maturity.
CHOONG-MOO tul: Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Lee Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.
I Degree Black Belt Patterns:
KWANG-GAE tul: Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 A.D., the year he came to the throne.
PO-EUN tul: Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.
GE-BAEK tul: Gae-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek-Je Dynasty (660 A.D.). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.